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复合宾语(宾语补足语)

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2016-03-16

复合宾语是指宾语由两部分组成。 后面部分也可称为宾语的补语。

1. 宾语补足语的一般情况
宾语补足语通常紧随于宾语之后。

1) 名词(代词) + 形容词 (即形容词作宾语补语)
* Do you think his idea wrong? 你认为他的意见错了吗?
* We must keep our classroom clean. 我们必须保持教室清洁。

2) 名词(代词) + 名词 (即名词作宾语补语)
* We call him Jack. 我们叫他杰克。
* He considers himself an expert on the subject. 他认为自己是这门学科的专家。

3) 名词(代词) +现在分词(即现在分词作宾语补语)
* I saw them playing football. 我看见他们正在踢足球。
* When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by a pretty young nurse. 当他醒来后, 他发现一个年轻漂亮的护士在照料他。

4) 名词(代词) +过去分词(即过去分词作宾语补语)
* I had my bike stolen. 我的自行车被偷了。
* I saw the ground covered with snow. 我看到地上覆盖着雪。

5) 名词(代词) + 介词短语(即介词短语作宾语补语)
* We found everything in good order. 我们发现一切井然有序。
* He awoke to find the house on fire. 他醒来时发现房子着了火。
* When I called on Tom, I found him at his desk. 我拜访汤姆时,发现他在伏案工作。
* We have him as our good friend. 我们把他视为好朋友。

6) 名词(代词) + 副词 (即副词短语作宾语补语)
* Send them back. 把它们退回去。
* I can't get the nail out. 我没法把这个钉子拔出。
* Please turn the light off before you leave. 离开前请关灯。

7) 名词(代词) + 不定式(即不定式作宾语补语)
a) 带to 的不定式作宾语补语
* We invited him to come to our school. 我们邀请他来我们学校。
* We can't allow them to do that. 我们不能容许他们那样做。
* I warn you not to believe a word he says. 我提醒你, 对他讲的话一句也不要信。

b) 有些动词只跟不带to的不定式作宾语补语
* I often hear him read English in his room. 我常听见他在房间里读英语。
* Please let me do it. 请让我做。
* They made me repeat the story. 他们逼我又把那事讲了一遍.
* I saw him put the key in the lock. 我看见他把钥匙插进锁孔.
* She watched him repair the bicycle. 她看着他修理单车。
* Did you notice anyone come in? 你注意到有人进来了吗?

c) 动词help 可以跟带to 的不定式作宾语补语,也可以跟不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。但被动时则要加to。
* She sometimes helps her mother (to) wash clothes. 她有时帮她妈妈洗衣服。
* I helped him (to) find his things. 我帮他找东西.
* They were helped to complete the project. 他们得到帮助完成项目。

【高中以上】
2. 宾语补足语有时可被移到宾语之前,特别是宾语较长或宾语是从句时。
1)副词补足语提前
副词补足语提前在英语中比较常见。

* He took off his coat immediately. 他立即脱下外套。
* It is difficult to sort out the lies from the truth. 很难从事实中区分出谎言。
* Can you make out who is over there talking with our teacher? 你能认出那边正和我们老师谈话的人是谁吗?

2)形容词补足语提前
* The improvement in technology made possible the rise of production. 技术的改进使产量增加成为可能。
* The teacher made clear the difference between the two words. 老师清楚地说明了两个词的区别。
* In recent years, China has continuously made public its military expenditure through * white paper. 近年来中国连续以白皮书的形式向世界公布了自己的军费开支情况。
* I beg you to keep secret what we talked here. 我求你对这里所谈的话保密。

3) 现在分词和过去分词作补足语有时也可以被移到宾语前。
* She found sitting on the desk a guy dressed like a student. 她见到一个学生打扮的小伙子坐在桌子上。
* He found hidden behind the rock a plant which he had never seen before. 他发现一棵从未见过的植物隐藏在岩石后边。

3. 介词宾语的宾语补足语 (with/without复合结构)
介词with/without 的宾语也常可有宾语补足语,构成复合结构, 表示方式、补充说明、伴随动作、 时间、 条件或原因等。

1)with/without + n. + 现在分词
* With the boy leading the way, we quickly found the house. 有男孩带路,我们很快找到那所房间。
* The English class ended with all students singing an English song. 英语课以全体学生合唱一首英语歌而结束。
* I can't move about in the city without everybody knowing. 在这座城市我的行踪无法不让大家知道。

2)with/without + n. + 过去分词
* With a lot of problems settled, the newly-elected president is having a good time. 解决了许多问题之后,新上任的总统有一个好的时光。
* With the homework finished, he was allowed to watch the football match. 完成作业之后,他被允许看足球赛。

3)with/without + n. + 形容词
* Before he came here, my father used to sleep with his eyes open. 我父亲来这儿之前,常常睁着眼睛睡觉。
* It was cold outside, the boy ran into the room with his nose red. 外面天气很冷,那个男孩跑进了屋子时,鼻子红红的。

4)with/without + n. + 介词短语
* The teacher came into the classroom with a book in his hand. 老师手里拿着本书走进了教室。
* He was asleep with his head on his arms. 他头放在手臂上睡着了。

5)with/without + n. + 副词
* He was standing there with nothing on. 他一丝不挂地站在那里。
* We went home with our work over. 我们工作做完就回家了。



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