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现在分词在句中的作用

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2013-06-23

1) 构成谓语用于表示进行时态
* Listen! She is singing an English song. 听!她正在唱英语歌。
* What were you talking just now? 你们刚才在谈论什么?
* I have been writing a book recently. 我最近一直在写一本书。
* They will be meeting us at the station. 他们会在车站上接我们的。

2) 构成不定式的进行形式
* They are said to be building another bridge across the street. 据说他们正在街道对面修建另一座桥。
* They seemed to be talking about something important. 他们好像正在谈论一些很重要的事情。
* When I went to his home, he happened to be traveling around the world. 当我到达他家时,他刚好环游世界去了。

3) 作表语
现在分词作表语时, 其动作意味很弱, 在功能上更接近形容词。不少词已经演化为正式的形容词。
* What he said was very encouraging. 他的话很鼓舞人心。
* The flowers look charming after the rain. 雨后的鲜花看上去很漂亮。
* It was amazing that the boy was able to solve the problem so quickly. 那男孩能这么快解决这个问题真是令人惊奇。
* It is frightening for her to think of that ghost story. 她想到那个鬼故事就毛骨悚然。

4) 作定语
a) 作前置定语
* He is a promising young man. 他是一个有前途的年轻人。
* This is a pressing question. 这是一个紧迫的问题。
* There was an embarrassing silence after his joke. 他讲完笑话之后,是一阵令人尴尬的沉默。
* The story had a satisfying ending. 这故事有一个令人满意的结局。
* Can you stop the running horse? 你可以阻止那辆正在奔跑的马吗?
* The sleeping boy is Tom. 正在睡觉的男孩叫汤姆。

b) 作后置定语, 位于所修饰的名词之后。
* A little child learning to walk often falls. 学走路的小孩经常跌倒。
* Did you know the girl dancing with your brother? 你认识和你哥哥跳舞的那个女孩子吗?
* Who is the woman being operated on? 正在动手术的女人是谁?
* Three days later I received a letter offering me the job. 三天后我收到了提供我这份工作的信。
* The freeway being built now will lead to Xigang Seaport. 正在建设的高速公路将直通新港码头。
* They lived in a room facing the east.   他们住在一间朝东的房间里。

c) 现在分词作定语时与动名词构成的合成词的区别:
现在分词表示所修饰的名词的动作,而动名词表示用途,目的等。

现在分词:
a flying bird 飞行的鸟
a swimming boy 正在游泳的男孩
a sleeping child 熟睡的孩子

动名词:
waiting room 候车室
a swimming suit 泳衣
a sleeping bag 睡袋

5) 构成复合宾语 (即作宾语补足语)
a) 动词 + 名(代)词 + 现在分词
* When we arrived, we found him sleeping. 我们到达时发现他在睡觉。
* He left me waiting here. 他留下我等在这。
* Don't have the students studying all day. 不要让学生整天都在学习。
* When he awoke,he found himself being looked after by an old woman. 他醒来的时候发现一位老大娘正在照顾他。
* Soon they could see the steam rising from the wet clothes. 很快他们会看见蒸汽从湿衣服上升起。
* I imagined myself performing before a clapping audience. 我想象自己在鼓掌的观众面前表演节目。
* Do you hear someone knocking at the door? 你听到有人正在敲门吗?
动词有时以被动形式出现。
* The missing boy was last seen playing near the river. 那个失踪的男孩最终被人们发现正在河边玩耍。
* A cook will be fired if he is found smoking in the kitchen. 厨师如果被发现在厨房抽烟将会被开除。

b) 介词 + 名(代)词 + 现在分词 【高中以上】
* She fell asleep with the light burning. 她睡着了,灯开着。
* Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 没人注意,他从窗户溜出去了。
* With the boy leading the way, we quickly found the house. 有男孩带路,我们很快找到那所房间。
* The English class ended with all students singing an English song. 英语课以全体学生合唱一首英语歌而结束。

6) 作状语

a) 作状语表目的或伴随动作
* The six blind men stood there begging for a meal. 六个瞎子站在那儿要饭。
* A search party went into the cave hoping to find buried treasure. 一个探寻小队进入山洞里,希望可以找到埋藏的宝藏。
* What are you busy doing these days? 你这些天都在忙些什么?
* Over 20,000 people were there watching the football match. 有两万多人在那里看足球赛。

b) 置于句前或句后,与句子常有逗号隔开,表示伴随的动作。
* He sat in the armchair, reading a newspaper.他坐在扶手椅里读报。
* The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. 那些孩子们跑出房间,愉快地笑着、说着。
* "Can't you read?" Mary said angrily, pointing to the notice. “你不识字吗?”玛丽指着告示,很生气地说。
* I stood by the door, not daring to say a word. 我站在门边,一句话都不敢说。
* Following the guide, they started to climb. 跟随者导游,他们开始了攀爬。
* Coming into the room, I saw a girl crying. 走进房间,我看到一个女孩正在哭泣。

c) 作句子状语,说明说话人的看法。
* Generally speaking, the most important news is on the front page. 一般而言,最重要的新闻都放在头版。
* Taking everything into account, his decision is not so bad. 把一切考虑在内,他的决定也不算坏。
* Talking of the football math, do you know which side won? 谈到足球赛,你知道那一边赢了吗?
* Considering the bad weather, the sports meeting was delayed. 考虑到坏天气的影响,运动会推迟了。

d) 表原因
* Being so poor at that time, we couldn't afford to buy a TV set. 那时我们非常穷,没有钱买电视。
* Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave a note. 发现没人在家,他决定留个字条。
* Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help. 由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。
* The doctor, not wishing to make her nervous, didn't fully explain the seriousness of her condition. 医生为了不使她紧张,没有完全向她讲明病情的严重性。

e) 表示一个动作一发生,另一个动作随即发生。
* He went out shutting the door behind him. 他走出去,关上了门。
* Hearing their teacher's voice, the pupils stopped talking at once. 一听到教师的声音,学生们立即停止讲话。

f) 与连词 when 或 while 连用。
* Don't be careless when having an exam. 考试时不要粗心。
* When hearing the news, they all danced for joy. 当听到这个消息的时候,他们都高兴得手舞足蹈。
* While watching TV in the room, we heard someone knocking at the door. 我们在看电视的时候听到有人在敲门。
* While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. 在那里等待的时候,他看见两个漂亮的女孩子从楼里走出来。

g) 表示在做某事过程中, 发生某事或做某事。
* Walking in the street, I saw him.当我在街上走时,我看到他了。
* Wandering through the street,he caught sight of a tailor's shop.逛街时,他看到一家裁缝铺。

h) 表示结果
* Her husband died ten years ago,leaving her with three children to look after. 她丈夫十年前去世了,撇下她和三个孩子。
* Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay. 他们的车遇上交通阻塞,因而耽误了。
* European football is played in more than 80 countries, making it the most popular sport in the world. 欧式足球在80个国家开展,使得欧式足球成为世界上最受欢迎的体育运动。



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