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省列句

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2013-06-23

什么是省列句?
人们在讲话或写作时为了省事或避免重复,常把句子中的某些成份或某些词省去。这样的句子称为省列句。英文句子中可以省列的成份很灵活。下面是一些例子。
* (I) Don't know. 我不知道。
* (Have you) Had your lunch? 吃午饭了吗?
* (Come) this way, please. 请往这边走。
* “What's the difference between these two?” “Well, it's hard to tell.” “这两个有什么不同?”“嗯,很难说。”
* Yes, there will. 是的,将会有。
* (Does)He need to go there? 他需要去那里吗?
* “She doesn't like him.” “Why?” “她不喜欢他。”“为什么?”
* Though interrupted,I went on talking. 虽然受到了干扰,我还是继续讲下去。

句子中被省列的成分
1) 省列主语
* (I) Don't know. 我不知道。
* (It) Doesn't matter. 没关系。
* (I)Beg your pardon. 请再说一遍。
* (I) Hope to see you again. 希望能再见到你。
* (You) Sit down, please. 请坐。

2) 省略主语和助动词
* (Have you) Had your lunch? 吃午饭了吗?
* (I've) Got to go to the meeting. 我得去开会了。
* (Do you) Want some? (你)要来一点吗?

3)省略谓语或省列谓语及其以后的部分(只保留主语)。
* (Come) this way, please. 请往这边走。
* “Who won the game?” “George.” “谁赢了比赛?”“乔治。”

4) 省略助动词
* (Does)He need to go there? 他需要去那里吗?
* (Are) They still waiting? 他们还在等吗?

5) 省略宾语
* “What's the difference between these two?” “Well, it's hard to tell.” “这两个有什么不同?”* “嗯,很难说。”
* “Are they still waiting?” “I don't know.” “他们还在等吗?”“我不知道。”

6)省列主语和谓语
* No, there won't. 不,不会有。
* Yes, there will. 是的,将会有。

7) 其他情况
a) 语言的省列方式很灵活,特别是在对话中。有时为了省事,只要能达意,可把句子的大部分省列掉。
* (Are you) Ready? 准备好了吗?
* (I'm) Sorry! 对不起!
* (I beg your) Pardon. 请再说一遍。
* “Where are you from?” “(I am from) China.” “你来自哪里?”“中国。”
* “When are we going to hold the meeting?” “Tomorrow,perhaps.” “我们什么时候开会?”“可能明天。”
* “It's a great trip.” “Sure.” “这是一次很好的旅行。” “是的。”
* “Can he make a good mark this time?” “Not likely.” “他这次能得高分吗?”“不太可能。”
* Look! 小心!
* Help! 救命啊!b) 有时为了避免重复刚提到的内容而采用省列。
* “She doesn't like him.” “Why?” “她不喜欢他。”“为什么?”
* They don't like to make friends with us, and we do not know why? 他们不喜欢和我们交朋友,我们不知道为什么。
* “He didn't go to the school yesterday.” “Did he?” “他昨天没去上学。”“是吗?”
* “You are wrong!” “Am I?” “你错了!”“是吗?”
* “Are you ready?” “Not quite.” “你准备好了吗?”“没完全好。”
* “Shall I call the police?” “Do, please” “我该叫警察吗?”“是的。”
* “Have you finished your homework?” “Not yet.” “你完成作业了吗?” “还没。”
* “Have you done your job?” “No, we haven't.” “你们完成工作了吗?”“还没。”
* “Will you go there?” “Yes, I will.” “你会那儿吗?”“会。”
* I like chicken, but my wife doesn't. 我喜欢鸡肉,但是我老婆不喜欢。
* “Can you help me to do this?” “Of course I can.” “你能帮我做这个吗?”“当然。”
* “Can you come to my party tonight?” “I'm afraid that I can't.” “你今晚能来参加我的派对吗?” “很抱歉,我来不了。”
* “Shall we do this?” “Yes, we must.” “我们得做这个吗?”“是的, 我们必顺做。”
* We'll do all we can to fulfill our task. 我们将尽一切可能完成任务。
* All of us should do what we can to make our company bigger. 我们必顺尽我们所能使公司理加壮大。
* You can study any subject you want to. 你可以学习你想学的科目。
* At last they did as we told them to. 最后他们照我们的话做了。
* “Can you stop making that noise?” “I'm afraid I have to.” “你可以停止制造噪音吗?”“对不起,我不得不这样。”
* “Will it rain tomorrow?” “I hope not.” “明天会下雨吗?”“我希望不会。”状语从句中的省略
状语从句中的省略在英语很常见。
1) 时间状语从句的省列
* The building looked ugly when first built. 这栋楼最初建成的时候很丑。
* When in trouble, I always ask for her help. 当有困难时, 我总是请求她的帮助。
* A friend is never known till needed. 患难见真交。
* Don't speak until spoken to. 别人和你讲话时你再讲话。
* Even as a boy he started doing business by himself. 他从小就开始自己做生意。
* Whenever possible, I look for jobs and take part in some campus activities. 只要有可能,我就找一些工作并参加一些校园活动。

2) 条件状语从句的省列
* He will come if asked. 若受到邀请,他会来的。
* Children are admitted only if accompanied by an adult. 只有由一名成人伴随时小孩才能进入。
* I can take the car if necessary. 必要时我可以开车去。
* I will not go to the party unless invited. 如果没被邀请, 我就不会参加派对。
* If in doubt, please ask your teacher. 如果有疑问,请问你们的教师。

3) 让步状语从句的省列
* Though interrupted,I went on talking. 虽然受到了干扰,我还是继续讲下去。
* The instrument is rather efficient though very simple. 这件仪器虽然简单,却相当有效。
* Although the youngest in the team, he perform the best. 虽然他是队里最年轻的一位,但是他做得最好。
* We will set off tomorrow whatever the weather. 不管天气怎样,我们明天一定出发。
* You can't go in no matter who. 不管是谁都不准进入。
* I refuse, however favourable the condition. 不管条件多好我都不接受。

4) 方式状语从句的省列
* One after another they left the room as if by previous agreement. 他们一个接着一个离开房间,仿佛事先约定好似的。
* The paper turned green as though by magic. 那纸像有魔法似的变绿了。
* He performed the task well, though slowly. 他把任务完成得很好,只是有些慢。

5) 地点状语从句的省列
* Put in an article where necessary. 在必要的地方填入冠词。
* Where possible, being polite is always proper. 尽可能礼貌总是对的。

6) 比较状语从句的省列
* He is busier than last year. 我们比去年忙。
* Parents these days push their children much harder than before. 如今的父母督促孩子比以前严得多。
* We have more resources than the other team. 我们比另一队有更多的资源。
* He works less than he used to. 他比过去工作得少。
* She is as tall as Peter. 她和彼得一样高。
* Eat as many as you can. 你尽量吃。
* Grandma doesn't go out as much as she used to. 祖母不像她过去外出那么多。

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