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动词的类型

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2013-06-23

1. 及物动词
这类动词后边要跟宾语。
She teaches English. 她教英语。
People love her. 人们都喜欢她。

2. 不及物动词
这类动词后边不跟宾语。
He arrived late this morning. 他今天早上迟到了。
Her parents died in an accident when she was six. 她6岁时双亲在一次车祸中丧生。

注: 在英语中,不少动词既可以作及物动词,也可以作不及物动词。

3. 双宾动词
有些动词可以跟两个宾语,一个为间接宾语,另一个为直接宾语。
Please give me a pen. 请给我一支笔。
He owed me 10 dollars. 他欠我10美元。

4. 系动词
系动词在句中连接主语和表语。常见的系动词有下面这些:
appear, be, become, fall, feel, get, go, grow, keep, look, prove, remain, rest, run, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

1) 系动词所连接的表语可以是形容词,名(代)词,数词,副词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,现在分词,过去分词或表语从句。(详细可参见“表语”一章)。
The dish smells good. 这盘菜闻起来不错。(形容词作表语)
It is a long wait in the dark. 在黑暗中他们等了很长一段时间。(名词作表语)
The atomic weight of oxygen is sixteen. 氧的原子量是16. (数词作表语)
I am not sure if he is around. 我不清楚他是否在附近。 (副词作表语)
He's still in danger. 他仍在危险期。(介词短语作表语)
His wish was to become a scientist. 他的愿望是当一名科学家。 (不定式作表语)
Her hobby is growing roses. 她的爱好是种玫瑰花。(动名词作表语)
What he said was very encouraging. 他的话很鼓舞人心。(现在分词作表语)
Please remain seated. 请不要站起来。(过去分词作表语)
The truth is that he was very shy. 事实是他很害羞。(表语从句)

2) “主语 + 系动词 + 形容词 + 介词短语” 结构
这种结构很常用, “be + 形容词 + 介词”这一结构有不少已成为习惯用语。

We are proud of our new club. 我们以我们的新会所为荣。
I am afraid of disturbing you. 我怕打搅了你。
He was not interested in that story. 他对那个故事不感兴趣。
The country is short of skilled labor. 这个国家缺乏熟练工人。
He was worried about her health. 他担心她的健康。

3)“主语 + 系动词 + 形容词 + 从句” 结构
I am afraid that it may hurt you. 我恐怕这会使你感到伤心。
She was glad that Joanna was going away. 乔安娜要走了,这使她很开心。
Our football team feels proud that it has won every match this year. 我们足球队为今年每次比赛都获胜而感到自豪。
I am not clear when he will come. 我不清楚他什么时候会来。
They were uncertain whether they could find time to do it. 他们不确定的他们是否能找到时间来做这个。
I am not sure what I ought to do. 我不知道我该做什么。

5. 助动词
(详见助动词一章)
6. 情态动词
(详见情态动词一章)



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