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表示现在和将来的条件句虚拟语气句型

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2013-06-26
虚拟语气句型用于表示与事实相反或实现可能性不大的情况。在汉语中相应的表达是“要是(如果)……(的话), 就……”。 条件句虚拟语气句型是表达虚拟语气最常用的句式。下面是几种采用条件句来表达现在和将来虚拟语气的句型。

1. 基本句式: 条件句谓语: 动词用过去式 + 主句谓语: would/might/could + 动词原形。
If you left your bag outside, someone would steal it. 如果你把包放在外面,有人会偷的。
You could die if you didn't stop taking crack cocaine. 如果你不停止摄入可卡因,你可能会死。
If I was caught I could be put in prison. 如果我被抓住,我可能会被关进监狱。

注意,当条件句中的谓语为be 时,必须写成were (包括主语是第一人称 I 的情况)。主语为第三人称单数时,谓语动词可以用was。
If I were you, I would take the opportunity. 如果我是你,我会抓住机会。
If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic. 如果现在不下雨的话,我们就出去野餐了。
If he was here, we might be able to solve the problem. 如果他在这里,我们就能够解决问题。

除了基本句式外,下面的几种条件句句式也可以用来表达虚拟语气。(主句仍采用“would/might/could + 动词原形”)

2. 条件句采用 were to + 不定式
If it were to rain today, we would not go for a picnic. 如果今天下雨,我们就不去野餐。
If she were(was) to be there next Monday, I would tell her about the matter. 如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事的始末。

3. 条件句采用 should + 不定式
If you should have any difficulty in writing this report, you could come to my office. 如果你写这份报告有什么困难的话,可以来我办公室。
If the products should arrive in a damaged condition, we wouldn't accept it. 如果产品运到时有损坏,我们将不能接受。

4. 条件句采用If it were not for 句式
If it were not for their help, we would be in serious trouble. 要不是有他们的帮助,我们会遇到大麻烦。
If it weren't for the new technology, this would be very difficult. 要不是有新技术,这会变得很难。

5. 条件句使用倒装语序
Were you in my position, you would do the same. 假如你处在我的位置,你也会那样做的。
Weren't it for their assistance, we wouldn't be able to complete this project on time. 要不是他们的帮助,我们就不能按时完成这个项目。
Were it not for their loan, our life would be very difficult. 要不是他们的贷款,我们的生活会很困难。
Should they have more cases to deal with, we would recruit more staff. 要是他们有更多的事情要处理,我们会招聘更多员工。

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