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定语从句用that不用which 的情况

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2016-04-13

that 和 which 是两个定语从句常见的引导词。关系代词that在定语从句中可以指代人,也可以指代物,而which 一般用于指物。所以当先行词为人时,多数情况下用that,如:

She is the girl that lives next door. 她就是住在隔壁的那个女孩。

[注] 当定语从句的先行词是婴儿时,常用which代表人,如:
These are the babies which need special care. 这些是需要特别照顾的婴儿。

that 和 which 在定语从句中指代物时,多数情况下是可以互换的。但下列情况下宜用that而不用which:

1) 当先行词为 all, anything, everything, nothing, something, few, little, much, any 等不定代词时,如:
Do you have anything that must be claimed? 你有东西需要申报吗?
I'll do all that is required of me. 要我干什么我就干什么。

2) 当先行词被 all, any, little, no, few 等词修饰时,如:
There are few rules that have no exception. 很少规则没有例外。
All the poisons that are absorbed by the body are brought to the liver. 身体吸收的有毒物质都被送到肝脏。

3) 当先行词为形容词最高级或被最高级修饰时,如:
This is the highest score that I can get. 这是我所能取得的最高分数。
This is the most interesting book that I’ve ever read. 这是我读过的最有趣的书。

4) 当先行词被序数词修饰时,如:
The first thing that needs to be done is moving away soil. 第一件要做的事是移除泥土。
The second approach that we’ve taken doesn’t work. 我们采取的第二种方法不起作用。

5) 当先行词为数词或被数词修饰时,如:
The two articles that I recommend to you are written by Mark Twain. 我推荐给你的两本书的作者是马克·吐温。
There are three that we found in that room. 我们在房间里发现了三个人。

6) 当先行词被 the very, the only, the same, the last 等修饰时,如:
He is the very man that we need for the vacancy. 他正是我们需要补这个空缺的人。
That's really the only thing that hurts. 只有这件事真的令我伤心。

7) 当句子的主语为which 时,如:
Which is the product that we desire? 哪一个是我们所期望的产品?

8) 当先行词同时包含人和物时,如:
The old man and his dog that we saw yesterday did not appear again. 昨天我们见到的那位老人和他的狗没有再出现。



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