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形容词的比较级和最高级

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2013-06-23

1. 形容词比较级和最高级的构成法
形容词的比较级和最高级变化形式规则如下:

1) 一般单音节词末尾加er 和 est
strong -- stronger – strongest

2) 单音节词如果以e结尾,只加r 和st
strange – stranger – strangest

3) 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母,须先双写这个辅音字母,再加er和est。
sad – sadder – saddest
big – bigger – biggest
hot – hotter – hottest

4) 少数以y, er, ow, ble结尾的双音节词,末尾加er和est (以y结尾的词,如y前是辅音字母,把y变成i,再加er和est,以e结尾的词仍只加r和st)
angry -- angrier -- angriest
clever -- clever -- cleverest
narrow -- narrower -- narrowest
noble -- nobler -- noblest

5) 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词more和most
different -- more different -- most different

2. 不规则的比较级和最高级
good -- better -- best
well -- better -- best
bad -- worse -- worst
old -- older/elder -- oldest/eldest
much/many -- more -- most
little -- less -- least
far -- farther/further -- farthest/furthest

3. 形容词比较级的用法
1) 形容词比较级单独使用
* Which book is more suitable? 哪一本书更适合呢?
* It couldn't be easier to finish the task. 要完成这任务不能再容易了。
* This kind of fish is more attractive. 这一种鱼更吸引人。
* They wanted better housing. 他们要求更好的住房。

2) 和than 搭配使用
* Russia is bigger than China. 罗斯比中国大。
* A good heart is better than any beautiful feathers. 一个善良的心要比漂亮的羽毛好很多。
* Mary is more beautiful than anyone else in her company. 玛丽在公司里比其他人都漂亮。
* His illness was more serious than the doctor first thought. 他的病情比医生原先所料的更严重。
* She looks younger than she is. 她看起来比她实际岁数显得要年轻。
* You must keep the room more bright than usual. 你必须把房间保持得比平时更明亮些。

4. 形容词比较级的修饰语
1) 形容词比较级前可加much, a lot, far, a bit, a little, slightly 等表示程度的状语。
* He studies a lot harder than me. 他学习比我努力多了
* It's slightly warmer today. 今天稍暖和一点。
* This building is much higher than that one. 这座楼比那座高很多。
* Could you give a little more attention to spelling? 你稍微多注意一下拼写好吗?
* A bicycle's often far more convenient than a car in busy cities. 在热闹的都市里骑自行车往往比坐汽车方便得多。

2) 形容词比较级前也可加 any, no, some, even, still 这一类的词。
* Is your father any better at all? 你父亲有些好转吗?
* You must go and get some more milk. 你得再去弄些牛奶来。
* Sally drives fast, but Olive drives even faster. 萨莉开车开得很快, 奥利夫开得更快。

3) 比较级前还可加一些表示数量的词。
* I only need a few more minutes to finish my homework. 我只需要多几分钟就可以完成作业。
* She is ten years younger than me. 她比我小十岁。
* It is one-fourth cheaper than the market price. 它比市场价格低四分之一。

5. 形容词比较级的特殊用法
1) more…than 表示“更多…而不是”
* I was more annoyed than worried when he didn't come home. 他没回家时我更多的是生气而不是担心。
* To them, music is more a way of life than just an interest. 对他们来说,音乐是一种生活方式而不仅仅是一种爱好。

2) more and more 表示“越来越”
* More and more people are giving up smoking. 戒烟的人越来越多了。
* He was having more and more trouble selling his fruit. 他在出售他的水果方面困难越来越多。

3) the + 比较级…, the + 比较级…,表示“越是…越…”
* The more learned a man is, the more modest he usually is. 一个人越有学问就越谦虚。
* The more he gets, the more he wants. 他越来越贪。
* The more complex the teaching equipment, the less likely it will be effective. 越复杂的教学设备可能越没有效果。
* The warmer the weather, the better I feel. 天气越暖和我感觉越舒服。

4) more than 表示 “超过”“不只”
* He can't keep a job for more than six months. 他做什么工作都不能超过半年。
* Don't drive more than 50 kilometers per hour in the city. 在市内开车时速不要超过50公里。

5) less than 表示 “不到…”“少于…”
* The whole house went up in smoke in less than an hour. 整座房子不到一个小时就烧光了。
* We shouldn't let our house go for less than 50000. 我们的房子低于50000英镑不卖。

6) no less than 表示“多达”“不少于”
* We won no less than 500 in a competition. 我们在一场比赛中赢了多达500英镑。
* No less than ten students flunked the exam. 整整有十位学生在这次考试中不及格。

7) more or less 表示 “差不多”,“大约”,“或多或少”
* I've more or less finished reading the book. 我差不多已经把这本书看完了。
* It took more or less a whole day to paint the ceiling. 粉刷天花板用了将近一整天的时间。
* I was more or less pitiful at the news he couldn't come. 听到他不能来的消息后,我多少有些遗憾。

6. as…as 和 not so/as…as 结构
1) as…as 意思为 “和…一样”
* This film is as interesting as that one. 这部电影和那部电影一样有趣。
* They were as firm as we could expect. 他们像我们所期待的那样坚定。
* The tree is as tall as the building(is). 这棵树和那栋楼一样高。
* This is as good an example as the other is. 这跟其他一样是一个好范例。
 
2) not so/as…as 意思为 “不像…那样”
* This dictionary is not as/so useful as you think. 这本字典不如你想象的那样有用。
* He is not so handsome as his brother. 他不像他哥哥那样英俊。
* The pen is not so/as long as the ruler. 这笔没有尺子长。
* He's not nearly as good as a speaker as me. 作为演说家,他比我差远了。

3) 第一个 as (或 so)之前可以有修饰语
* This dress is twice as expensive as that. 这件连衣裙比那件贵一倍。
* Their house is about three times as big as ours. 他们的房子比我们的房子约大两倍。

7. 形容词最高级的用法
1) 形容词最高级主要表示“最…”的意思,前面一般带定冠词the。
* That was the worst airline disaster in history. 那是历史上最严重的空难。
* It's the latest fashion from Paris. 这是巴黎来的最新式样。
* We have had the biggest wheat crop ever this year. 今年我们的小麦收获量是有史以来最好的。
* Please deliver the goods at your earliest convenience. 请尽早送货
* It is the largest island in Europe. 它是欧洲最大的岛。
* The most popular color this summer is pink. 今年夏天最流行的颜色是粉红色。

2) 形容词最高级用作表语时,定冠词the 可以省略。
It is best to get up early. 早早起床是最好的。
We are busiest during the summer. 夏天的时候我们最忙。
You story is most interesting. 你讲的故事最有趣。



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