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主谓一致

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2016-03-14

在英文句子中,谓语的写法应该与主语的数保持一致。当主语在意义上为复数时,谓语动词必须采用相应的复数形式。当主语在意义上为单数时, 谓语动词须采用相应的单数形式。谓语的单复数形式的具体写法可见谓语动词单复数形式一章,本文主要讲解主语与谓语在数上如何保持一致。

1. 主语为复数时,谓语用复数形式,如:
The workers want him as their leader. 工人们都想让他当领袖。
A group of boys were playing football in the street. 一帮小伙子当时正在街上踢足球。

2. 主语为单数时,谓语用单数形式,如:
Your hair is longer than mine. 你的头发比我的长。
She knows how to do this. 她知道这个怎么做。

3. 当主语为由并列连词 and 连接的名词时,谓语动词通常用复数,如:

Saturday and Sunday are public holidays. 周六和周日为公共假日。
Peter and his brother have been to London twice. 彼得和他的哥哥去过伦敦两次。

但以下情况时,谓语动词用单数形式。
1) 并列的主语表示同一事物、同一概念或同一个人时。
Iron and steel is the backbone of industry. 钢铁是工业的支柱。
The writer and professor has agreed to take me as his student. 那位作家兼教授已经同意收我做他的学生。

2) 并列主语前分别由each, every, many a 或 no 等修饰时。
Every boy and every girl in our village is given a gift every Christmas Eve. 每年圣诞夜我们村的每个男孩与女孩都会收到一份礼物。
No sound and no voice is heard for a long while. 久已声息全无。

4. 第二人称 you 作主语时, 谓语用复数形式, 如:
You are right. 你是对的。
You have been wrongly informed. 你得到错误的消息。
You look beautiful. 你看上去很美。

5. 第一人称(I) 与其谓语的主谓一致规则如下:
1) 当谓语时态结构中含有be时,在一般现在时态和现在进行时态应写为 am(而不用 is 或 are)。在过去时态则用was。
I am a student. 我是一名学生。
I am writing a book. 我正在写一本书。
I was amazed at the news. 我听到这个消息感到惊讶。
I was asked to a wedding party. 我被邀请参加婚礼。
I was trying to help, but I screwed up again. 我原想帮忙,反而又把事情搞糟了.

2) 当谓语为一般的动词时,谓语动词用复数形式,如:
I have only three dollars in my pocket at that time. 那时我口袋里仅有三美元。
I live near an airport. 我住在机场附近。
I beat him in the match. 我在比赛中胜了他。
I have been here since Sunday. 我上星期天以来一直在这里。
I have turned the box upside down. 我把箱子给倒过来了。

注: 在特殊情况下, I 有时与were搭配。例如虚拟语气条件句中会用were来表示语气, 如:
If I were you, I'd start looking for another job. 我要是你, 就去另找工作了。

6. 主语由不定式充当时, 谓语动词用单数形式。
To learn a foreign language is not easy. 学习一门外语不容易。
To stop the work now seems impossible. 现在停止工作似乎是不可能的。

7. 主语为动名词时, 谓语动词用单数形式。
Growing roses is her hobby. 种玫瑰是她的喜好。
Improving the production process is necessary. 改进生产工具是必要的。
Working with one's head causes a sensation of hunger as much as muscular work. 用脑工作引起与体力劳动时一样的饥饿感。

8. 主语为主语从句时, 谓语动词用单数形式。
What you say is not right. 你说的不对。
That he hasn't phoned is odd. 他没来电话很奇怪。
When she'll be back depends on the weather. 她什么时候将会回来取决于天气。

9. 时间,货币单位,度量单位作主语时:
1) 当把复数主语看成一个整体时, 谓语动词用单数形式。
Five minutes is enough. 五分钟就足够了。
Two million dollars is a big sum of money. 两百万元是一笔很大的钱数。
Ten kilometers was covered in two hours. 两小时走了7公里。

2) 当把复数名词看成具体所指的一个个的个体时, 谓语动词用复数形式。
The past four weeks have been the driest in the country's history. 过去的四个星期是该国历史上最干旱的。

10. 分数作主语时, 谓语动词形式应与of后的名词保持一致。
Two-fifths of the books here are worth reading. 这里有五分之二的书值得看。
Two-thirds of the crop was damaged during the storm. 三分之二的庄稼被暴雨毁坏。

11. 百分比percent (或per cent, %) 作主语时的主谓一致。
1) 百分比加不可数名词或单数名词时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。
70 percent of the fund was supplied by the government. 70%的资金由政府提供。

2) 百分比加集体名词,则谓语动词可以用单复数形式均可。
What per cent of the population read/reads books? 识字的人占人口的百分之几?

3) 百分比加复数名词,则谓语动词用复数形式。
65% of children play computer games. 65%的小孩子玩电脑游戏。

12. or, either…or, neither…or, not only…but also, not…but, nor 等并列结构作主语时,谓语动词的主谓一致应按照就近原则,即动词的单、复数形式以靠近它的名词的单、复数形式而定。
Peter or his assistants are to blame. 彼得或者他的助手们应该受到责备。
Either his brother or his friends are wrong. 不是他的兄弟就是他的朋友错了。
Neither the teacher nor the students were informed of the result of the test. 老师和学生们都没有得到考试结果的通知。
Not only you but also he is wrong. 不只是你, 而且他也是错的。
Not you but your father is to blame. 不是你,而是你的父亲应该受到责备。

13. all, some, any, more, most, enough, half 作主语时,有可能表示复数意义,也有可能表示单数意义。如果表示复数意义,则谓语动词用复数。 如果表示单数意义, 则谓语动词用单数。
All have arrived on time except Tom. 除了汤姆外, 所有人都按时到达了。
All is ready except the opening speech. 除了开幕词外,所有一切都准备就绪。

Most students are in California, but some are sent to Texas. 大多数学生留在加利福尼亚州, 但有一些去了德克萨斯州。
Most of the scene is written in verse, but some is in prose. 这场戏大部分内容是用韵文写成的,但也有一些是散文形式的。

14. all, some, any, more, most, enough, half + of 作主语时的主谓一致。
all, some, any, more, most, enough, half + of 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式与 of 后的名词单复数保持一致。
All of the money is spent. 所有钱都花光了。
All of his novels were against society. 他所有的小说都是反社会的。

Some of his ideas are quite good. 他的一些主意很不错。
Some of the furniture in this old house has been removed. 这个旧房子的一些家具已经搬走了。

15. None of 作主语的主谓一致如下:
1) none of + 可数名词复数(或集体名词单数)作主语时, 谓语动词用单复数形式均可。
None of the guests want/wants to stay. 没有一个客人想留下来的。
None of her family has/have been to school. 她的一家都没有上过学。

2) none of + 不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
None of the work was done. 什么工作也没干。

16. The rest of, the remainder of 作主语时的主谓一致。
The rest of 或 the remainder of 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式与 of 后的名词单复数保持一致,如:
The rest of the money is his. 其余的钱是他的。
The rest of the students stay in the classroom. 其余的学生留在教室里。

17. a / one + 单数名词 + and a half 作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
A year and a half has passed. 一年半的时间过去了。

18. "more than one + 名词" 作主语时, 谓语动词用单数形式。
More than one person was absent. 不止一个人缺席。



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