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定语从句

文章来源:句解霸 | 更新日期:2013-12-26
定语从句用于修饰其前边的名词。定语从句可以由关系代词或关系副词引导。

1. 由关系代词引导的定语从句

1) 可以引导定语从句的关系代词包括 that, which, who, whom 和 whose。that 可以指人,也可以指物,在定语从句中可作主语、宾语或表语。which 指物,在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。 who 和 whom 指人。前者在定语从句中作主语,后者在定语从句中作宾语。(在口语中,有时也用who代替whom作宾语。) whose在定语从句中作定语,可以指人,也可以指物。

The man that visited our school is from Australia.到访我们学校的那个人来自澳大利亚。 (that 在定语从句中作主语)
This is a great chance that many people do not have. 这是很多人没有的一个好机会。(that 在定语从句中作宾语) 
It is a dictionary which suits you best. 它是最适合你的一本词典。(which 在定语从句中作主语)
This is the book which I bought yesterday. 这是我昨天买的那本书。(which 在定语从句中作宾语)
I like to have friends who are different from me. 我喜欢交与我不同的朋友。
He is the boy whom you are looking for. 他是你要找的那个男孩。
We went to see our teacher whose husband lost his life in the earthquake. 我们去看我们的老师,她的丈夫在地震中丧生了。
I live in a house whose windows face the east. 我居住在一间窗子面向东方的房子。

2) 当关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,常可以省列。当先行词为 the way时,引导词也可以省列。
There are a lot of things you could do.  有许多事情你能做。
Some parents are going to study the subjects their children learn at school. 一些父母将学习他们的小孩在学校学习的科目。
This is the person I saw on the bus. 这是我在公共汽车上见到的那个人。
It can also influence the way we behave. 它也会影响我们行为的方式。

3) 定语从句的引导词作介词宾语时,介词可以置于引导词之前
The man with whom I was traveling didn't speak English. 和我一起旅行的那个人不会讲英语。
Is this the room in which he once lived? 这是他曾经居住的房间吗?
The plane on which we flew to Beijing is very comfortable. 我们飞往北京的飞机很舒适。


2. 由where, when, why等关系副词引导的定语从句

1) 可以引导定语从句的关系副词包括where, when, why等。
In places where there are rivers and lakes, students usually go to school by boat. 在有河和湖的地方,学生通常坐船去上学。
I love places where the people are really friendly.  我喜欢人们真正很友好的地方。
There are some places where talking loudly is not allowed. 有一些地方大声说话是不允许的。
The house where I lived five years ago has been pulled down. 我五年前居住的那间房子已经被拆毁。
At the time when I saw him, he was quite strong. 我见到他的时候,他很强壮。
This is the reason why he looks so sad today. 这是他今天看上去这么难过的原因。

2) when, where 有时可以省列。
That was the first time I had trouble with my boss. 那是我第一次和我老板产生纠纷。
This is the place we met last week. 这是我们上周见面的地方。

3) 有时关系副词前还可以有介词。
We climbed up a mountain from where we had a fantastic view. 我们爬上一座山,从那里我们看到极好的景色。

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